Lima's 481st Anniversary

19:35 M.K.Orange 0 Comments



On the 18th of January 1535, the Spanish Conquistador Francisco Pizarro founded “The City of Kings” (Ciudad de los Reyes) that eventually became known as Lima.  The location in which Lima was founded was never the first option in 1533 Jauja was the one of the first areas chosen by the Conquistadors however, due to the cold climate and distance from the sea made them look elsewhere. 
Francisco baptized the city “The City of Kings” it is thought the name comes from the festival that is celebrated in Spain called “Los Tres Reyes Magos” (The Three Kings) this festival now is widely celebrated across South America however, María Rostworowsk an historian suggests the city was named after the King of Spain Carlos V and his mother Juana I, Queen of Castile.
Before this, the area where Lima can be located was occupied and had been occupied for many years, when Pizarro came the area was home to the Cuismanco people and governed by Taulichusco. Some chroniclers wrote that Taulichusco received the Spanish in a friendly and courteous way and that he had already heard of their presence in Tahuantinsuyo.
To prevent the humiliation and slavery of his people he asked them to spread out throughout the territory.The fate of Tahuantinsuyo is unknown some historians suggest he died of natural causes while some dispute he may have been murdered.  Taulichusco is not truly forgotten in Lima, if you travel to the center of Lima and find Pasaje Santa Rosa you will find a large rock which was placed in honor of the last governor before the Spanish arrived of the Rimac area, Taulichusco.

Architecture of Lima in 1535

Pizarro built Lima in a similar fashion to the cities in Spain, the city starting with a large plaza (square) and expands outwards. It is thought that The Presidential Palace was built on top of the home of Taulichusco and the Cathedral of Lima was built on top of a religious temple.  The construction of the new city came at the cost of indigenous people had been converted to slaves.
In 1536, Lima was attacked under the orders of Manco Inca; this was led by Inca general Quizo Yupanqui. Fierce fighting broke out on the outskirts of the city however, the outcome was unfavorable for Manco as the Spanish and their indigenous allies defeated Manco’s resistance force and the evidence of this battle can still be seen today at the archaeological site of Puruchuco in Ate.


Lima continued to grow after the rebellion was crushed however, on 26th of June 1541 the founder of Lima was assassinated in the Presidential Palace by the son of his old friend who became enemies Diego de Almagro. Cristóbal Vaca de Castro became the next colonial administrator in Peru.
In 1542 Spain designated Lima as capital of the Viceroyalty of Peru and the site of a Real Audiencia, the high court, in 1543. From here the Spaniards ruled over vast areas in South America.  In 1551, Peru being heavily influenced by the Catholic Church became the place where the Spanish Inquisition headquarters for South America would be opened.
Due to Lima´s growing wealth and influenced it made it a target for pirates and in 1579 the British pirate Francis Drake raided Callao and in 1615 and 1624 Callao was once again raided by the Dutch pirate Jacques L'Hermite.  To prevent further raids on the important port a fort was built under the orders of Viceroy José Manso de Velasco and in 1770 the fort Real Felipe was finished. The fort has now been converted into a museum and can still be visited today.
Another major event that occurred in Peru and in Lima was the occupation of Lima by the Chileans who took the city on January 17 1881 during the War of the Pacific, Lima was not liberated until 1883 when Peru surrendered.




 

Lima today is a bustling city with a population of 8 million people and although that the capital is struggling with many major issues there is always the good parts that we can find. So for the anniversary of Lima go check out the city centre as they are events and also check out the museums to find out some more interesting information of not just Lima but of Peru in general.



Hope this help you to know a bit more about this special day :D if you wish to see the printable version, please click here: Lima-online magazine

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